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Gender, education and work: The weaker sex

Boys are being outclassed by girls at both school and university, and
the gap is widening

在高酣春高端高校阶段,男孩正被女孩超过,且间距正渐次拉大。

“IT’S all to do with their brains and bodies and chemicals,” says Sir
Anthony Seldon, the master of Wellington College,
a**posh**English**boarding school**. “There’s
a**mentality**that it’s not cool for them to perform, that it’s not
cool to be smart,” suggests Ivan Yip, principal of the Bronx Leadership
Academy in New York. One school charges £25,000 ($38,000) a year and has
a**scuba-diving**club; the other serves subsidised lunches to most
of its pupils, a quarter of whom have**special needs**. Yet
both**are grappling with**the same problem: teenage boys are being
left behind by girls.

大器晚成所高级葡萄牙共和国语寄宿学园的校长AnthonySeldon称“那统统在于他们的大脑、肢体和荷尔蒙”。纽约Bronx Leadership
Academy市长IvanYip称“他们普及以为努力是不酷的,聪明是不酷的”。后边叁个收取费用3.8万加元一年并存在潜水俱乐部;而另几个为其大多数学员提供中饭补贴,约得其半的学习者有异乎常常教学须要。可是,它们都雷同致力于息灭相像难题:青年男孩远远滞后于女孩。

It is a problem that would have been unimaginable a few decades ago.
Until the 1960s boys spent longer and went further in school than girls,
and were more likely to graduate from university. Now, across the rich
world and in a growing number of poor countries, the balance
has**tilted**the other way. Policymakers who once fretted about
girls’ lack of confidence in science now spend their time dangling
copies of “Harry Potter” before surly boys. Sweden has commissioned
research into its “boy crisis”. Australia has devised a reading
programme called “Boys, Blokes, Books & Bytes”. In just a couple of
generations, one gender gap has closed, only for another to open up.

那是一个十数年前无法想像的题材。直到19世纪70年间早先,男孩比女孩花费更加长日子并赢得更加高等教学育,且更有希望从大学结业。现在,不论是富裕世界还是越多的贫穷国家,平衡向另一方倾斜。曾经顾忌女孩缺乏正确信心的国策制订者们,以往越来越多日子在强行男孩前边摇荡《哈利Porter》。Switzerland政坛已委托了大器晚成项关于“男孩危害”的研讨。澳大布兰太尔联邦(Commonwealth of Australia)开展了生龙活虎项”男孩,男士,书和比特”的档次。仅仅几代时间内,前壹天性别差距消失,而后大器晚成种性别差距又现身。

The**reversal**is laid out in a report published on March 5th by the
OECD, a Paris-based rich-country think-tank. Boys’ dominance just about
endures in maths: at age 15 they are, on average, the equivalent of
three months’ schooling ahead of girls. In science the results are
fairly even. But in reading, where girls have been ahead for some time,
a gulf has appeared. In all 64 countries and economies in the study,
girls outperform boys. The average gap is equivalent to
an**extra**year of schooling.

以法国首都为集散地的丰饶世界智库OECD于三月5号揭橥了大器晚成份简报中显得了这种反转。男人在数学领域的主导地位差不离会穷追猛打。在平均年龄15虚岁时,男孩超越同年龄女孩八个月。在自然科学领域,男女学子表现格外。但是,在阅读领域,女孩一贯维持超越地位,且间隔变得越来越大。在这里项研究所涉及的陆拾二个国家和经济体中,女孩比男孩表现突出。女孩平均比男孩超前叁个学年。

The OECD**deems**literacy**to be the most**important skill that
it assesses, since further learning depends on it. Sure enough, teenage
boys are 50% more likely than girls to fail to achieve basic proficiency
in any of maths, reading and science (see chart 1). Youngsters in this
group, with nothing to**build on**or**shine at**, are prone to
drop out of school altogether.

因进一步深造须要依附读写技巧,OECD将它当作评估中最要害的本事。果真如此,在促成数学、阅读和自然科学的功底技巧时,年轻男孩比女孩多出百分之四十的倒闭恐怕。在这里个群众体育的小青少年,因无所依赖和无所优秀,而更有希望从全校停止上学。

To see why boys and girls fare so differently in the classroom,
first**look at**what they do outside it. The average 15-year-old
girl devotes five-and-a-half hours a week to homework, an hour more than
the average boy, who spends more time playing video games
and**trawling the internet**. Three-quarters of girls read for
pleasure, compared with little more than half of boys. Reading rates are
falling everywhere as screens draw eyes from pages, but boys are giving
up faster. The OECD found that, among boys who do as much homework as
the average girl, the gender gap in reading fell by nearly a quarter.

要精通为啥匹夫和女子在课堂内突显出那样反差,先从课堂之外活动入手。平日17周岁女孩每一周成本5.5钟头去做家庭作业,比平均男孩多三个小时,他们花费越来越多日子玩电子游艺和上网。3/4的女子将阅读作为消遣,而只有百分之五十多点的男人这么做。随着显示器稳步把眼光从本本挪开,世界上富有地点的阅读率正逐步回退,而男士下跌速度更加快。OECD开采,在那么些和日常女孩子专门的学问平常的男士中,在翻阅方面的性别差别缩短了48%左右。

Once in the classroom, boys**long to**be out of it. They are twice
as likely as girls to report that school is a “waste of time”, and more
often turn up late. Just as teachers used to struggle to persuade girls
that science is not only for men, the OECD now urges parents and
policymakers to steer boys away from a version of**masculinity**that
ignores academic achievement. “There are different pressures on boys,”
says Mr Yip. “Unfortunately there’s a tendency where they try to**live
up to**certain expectations in terms of [bad] behavior.”

生机勃勃教授,男生就渴望快点甘休。在告诉中,多于女人2倍的男士认为上课是浪费时间,何况更平日迟到。就像过去教授努力说服女子自然科学并不只是男子领域,OECD近年来建议老人和战术制订者指点男士远隔将忽略学术成就作为男子气概表现的这种主张。Yip校长说:“男孩面对着五光十色的下压力。但不幸的是,他们试图在坏行为上不负被人指望。

Boys’**disdain**for school might have been less irrational when
there were plenty of jobs for uneducated men. But those days**have
long gone**. It may be that a bit of swagger helps in maths, where
confidence plays a part in boys’ lead (though it sometimes extends
to**delusion**: 12% of boys told the OECD that they were familiar
with the mathematical concept of “subjunctive scaling”, a red herring
that fooled only 7% of girls). But their lack of self-discipline drives
teachers crazy.

当已经有超级多行事可供未受教育男人接纳时,男孩轻视学园还显示没那么非理性。可是那么些日子已经未有。也可以有个别傲然有协助男生学习数学,自信促使男士超过(但不时候则改为黄金时代种幻觉:12%的男孩告诉OECD他们了解”虚构缩放“这一概念,而那大器晚成假概念则只蒙骗到7%的女孩)。但她俩贫乏自律让名师很脑瓜疼。

Perhaps because they can be so insufferable, teenage boys are often
marked down. The OECD found that boys did much better in its anonymized
tests than in teacher assessments. The gap with girls in reading was a
third smaller, and the gap in maths—where boys were already ahead—opened
up further. In another finding that suggests a lack of even-handedness
among teachers, boys are more likely than girls to be forced to repeat a
year, even when they are of equal ability.

只怕因为他俩那样令人难以忍受,青少年男孩平常付与相当的低分数。OECD开采,男孩在无名氏测量检验中的表现好于教授评估。在翻阅方面包车型地铁性别差别降低了1/4;而在数学方面,已当先的男人将分歧拉大。另后生可畏研商显示,因老师缺少公平,固然工夫十一分。男子也比女子更有异常的大可能率被供给复读一年,

What is behind this discrimination? One possibility is that teachers
mark up students who are**polite, eager and stay out of fights**,
all**attributes**that are more common among girls. In some
countries, academic points can even be**dock**ed for bad behaviour.
Another is that women, who make up eight out of ten primary-school
teachers and nearly seven in ten lower-secondary teachers, favour their
own sex, just as male bosses have been shown to favour male underlings.
In a few places sexism is**enshrined**in law: Singapore
still**canes**boys, while**澳门新葡亰xpj88,sparing**girls the rod.是什么

致使这种反差对待?黄金时代种大概的解说是教师的资质付与那么些礼貌、热心和远远地离开打架的学员越来越高分数,而这个特点在女孩中国和越南社会主义共和国发布满。在风姿浪漫部分国度,以致会因不良行为而扣掉学业分数。另后生可畏种大概是,女子,构成了七成的小教的和临近四分之二的初级中学年老年师,更偏幸她们自身的性别,就像是男子上级偏幸男人下属经常。在局地地点在法国网球国际赛后也许有性别主义:新加坡共和国照旧允许鞭刑男人,而女人则免于这个国家际法。

Some countries provide an environment in which boys can do better. In
Latin America the gender gap in reading is relatively small, with boys
in**Chile**,**Colombia**,**Mexico**and**Peru**trailing
girls less than they do elsewhere. Awkwardly, however, this nearly
always**comes with**a wider gender gap in maths,**in favour
of**boys. The reverse is true, too: Iceland, Norway and Sweden, which
have got girls up to parity with boys in maths, struggle with
uncomfortably wide gender gaps in reading. Since 2003, the last occasion
when the OECD did a big study, boys in a few countries have caught up in
reading and girls in several others have significantly narrowed the gap
in maths. No country has managed both.

在多少国家为男孩展现优质提供了条件。在拉丁美洲,阅读方面包车型客车性别差别相对十分小。如智利、哥伦比亚共和国、墨西哥和秘鲁共和国(La República del Perú)的男人落后于女人小于其余地点。不过,令人纠结的是,那总伴随着男人在数学方面超过于女人的差异加大。反过来也创设。女孩与男孩在数学方面表现非常的冰岛、挪威王国和Switzerland,挣扎于令人生气的日益加宽的读书方面性别差距。自二〇〇一年OECD最终三回就此展开的周围考察突显,少数国度男人在阅读方面蒙受了女人,而在另生机勃勃对国家女人成功减弱了数学方面包车型客车歧异。但绝非国家成功完毕双方。

Girls’ educational dominance**persists**after school. Until a few
decades ago men were in a clear majority at university almost everywhere
(see chart 2), particularly in advanced courses and in science and
engineering. But as higher education has boomed worldwide, women’s
enrolment has increased almost twice as fast as men’s. In the OECD women
now make up 56% of students enrolled, up from 46% in 1985. By 2025 that
may rise to 58%.

高级中学档教育从今以后,女人的抢先地位继续保持。直至新近四十几年,男性大致攻陷高校的主流人群,极其是科学与工程领域的高阶课程。但是,随着高教在世界范围的如日方升,女人入学拉长率大约两倍于男人。在OECD报告表明了,女子注册率由1983年的51%进步至58%,到2025年说不定回涨至半数。

Even in the handful of OECD countries where women are in the minority on
campus, their numbers**are creeping up**. Meanwhile several,
including America, Britain and parts of Scandinavia, have 50% more women
than men on campus. Numbers in many of America’s elite private colleges
are more evenly balanced. It is widely believed that their opaque
admissions criteria are relaxed for men.

正是在个别女子是少数人全的OECD国家,女人数量也再逐步攀升。与此同时,一些囊括United States、英国和澳洲江山,女子比男人人口多于二分一。在众多花旗国天才公立高校中,性别比例进一步平衡。许五个人感到这几个高校的不透明招生规范越发偏幸男子。

The feminisation of higher education was so gradual that for a long time
it passed unremarked. According to Stephan Vincent-Lancrin of the OECD,
when in 2008 it published a report pointing out just how far it had
gone, people “couldn’t believe it”.

高教的女子化进度如此缓慢,甚至于在非常长日子内未被人发觉。据OECD的Stephan
Vincent-Lancrin称,当二〇〇八年风度翩翩份有关告知摘立时,大家“不相信赖这结果”。

Women who go to university are more likely than their male peers to
graduate, and typically get better grades. But men and women tend to
study different subjects, with many women choosing courses in education,
health, arts and the humanities, whereas men take up computing,
engineering and the**exact sciences**. In mathematics women
are**drawing level**; in the life sciences, social sciences,
business and law they have moved ahead.

步向大学的女性,相对于他们的男人同僚,更有十分大可能率结束学业,且取得更好地培育。不过,男子和女性所选科目标侧向差别。越来越多地女人接受教育、健康、艺术和人经济学科,而男人越多选取Computer、工程和小巧科学等科目。在数学方面,女子正长久以来,而在正确、社会科学、商业和法律方面,她们处于超过地位。

Social change has done more to encourage women to enter higher education
than any deliberate policy.**新浦京娱乐场官网,The Pill**and a decline in the average
number of children, together with later marriage and childbearing, have
made it easier for married women to join the workforce. As more women
went out to work, discrimination became less**sharp**. Girls saw the
point of study once they were expected to have careers. Rising divorce
rates underlined the importance of being able to provide for yourself.
These days girls nearly everywhere seem more ambitious than boys, both
academically and in their careers. It is hard to believe that in 1900-50
about half of jobs in America were barred to married women.

相持于其余蓄意的政策,社会变革更方便于鼓劲女子步向高教。口性格很顽强在艰难曲折或巨大压力面前不屈避孕片和平均育儿数量的减退,以致晚婚和晚育等,为已婚女子寻觅专门的工作提供了便民。随着更加多女子步入专门的学业碰到,歧视变得没那么断定。生龙活虎旦女子被期望全体专门的学问发展时,女孩就意识到上学的显要。上涨的离婚率使得女子发掘到本身供养的第生龙活虎。最近,无论是学业上还是职场上,世界外市的女孩比男孩表现出更开封想。玄而又玄,在19社会风气上半叶,大约大半United States做事禁绝已婚女人从事。

So are women now on their way to becoming the dominant sex? Hanna
Rosin’s book, “The End of Men and the Rise of Women”, published in 2012,
argues that in America, at least, women are ahead not
only**educationally**but increasingly
also**professionally**and**socially**. Policymakers in many
countries worry about the**prospect**of a
growing**underclass**of**ill-educated men**. That should worry
women, too: in the past they have typically married men in their own
social group or above. If there are too few of those, many women will
have**to marry down**or not at all.

那么,女子是不是慢慢改为骨干性别?出版于二〇一一年的Ranna Rosin的《The End
of Men and the Rise of
Women》中提出,最少在United States,女子不仅仅教育上抢先,还在专门的学业上和社会上抢先。许多国家的国策制定者顾虑数量日益攀升的下层阶级的辅导程度十分低的男人的前景前途。女人也相应忧郁那一点。在过去,女性日常与同阶层或高于本人阶层的男子成婚。假使这种雄性人类超少,大多数女性只好搜索下阶层男子或选取不结婚。

According to the OECD, the return on investment in a degree is higher
for women than for men in many countries, though not all. In America
PayScale, a company that**crunches**incomes data, found that the
return on investment in a college degree for women was lower than or at
best the same as for men. Although women as a group are now better
qualified, they earn about three-quarters as much as men. A big reason
is the choice of subject: education, the humanities and social work pay
less than engineering or computer science. But academic research shows
that women attach less importance than men to the graduate pay premium,
suggesting that a high financial return is not the main reason for their
further education.

据OECD展现,虽不是整个,不过在超多国度,高教投入对女子的回报当先男子。一家访问收入多少的公司America
PayScale开采,女子对于高校文凭的投资收益率相对于男子来说,超级低或(在最佳景况下)相近。固然女性总体表现越来越,但他们薪金水平仅为男子的3/4。紧要缘由在于相对于工程或微型Computer科学等,女子选拔教育、人文和社科那类工资超低科目。但是,学术切磋显示相对于男人,女性更加少的关注薪水,展现了谋求高回报并非女子追求高教的要害原因。

At the highest levels of business and the professions, women remain
notably scarce. In a reversal of the pattern at school, the anonymous
and therefore gender-blind essays and exams at university protect female
students from bias. But in the workplace, says Elisabeth Kelan of
Britain’s Cranfield School of Management, “traditional patterns assert
themselves in miraculous ways”. Men and women join the medical and legal
professions in roughly equal numbers, but 10-15 years later many women
have chosen unambitious career paths or dropped out to spend time with
their children. Meanwhile men**are rising through the ranks**as
qualifications gained long ago fade in importance and personality,
ambition and experience come to matter more.

在最高层级的经济贸易和行业内部领域,女人照旧非常少。女性在这个学院所表现优势被逆袭。在全校,随想及考试评价是无名的,性别因素被制止,而爱慕女人不受性别歧视的影响。但是,来自于英帝国CraneField文大学的埃利sabeth
Kelan称,在干活场馆古板格局再一次验证本身。同等数量的男人和女人参与文高校和法律高校,不过,10-15年过后,大多女子采用了更为干燥的工作路径或费用更加多时间陪孩子。与此同时,随着早先习得的经验的入眼日益消退而个性、雄心和经历成为更为主要的熏陶因素,男人在事情层级上稳步攀升。

For a long time it was said that since women had historically
been**underrepresented**in university and work, it would take time
to fill the pipeline from which senior appointments were made. But after
40 years of making up the majority of graduates in some
countries,**that argument is wearing thin**. According to Claudia
Goldin, an economics professor at Harvard, the “last chapter” in the
story of women’s rise—equal pay and access to the best jobs—will not
come without big structural changes.

不长风姿浪漫段时间以来,流传着生机勃勃种说法:因历史范围来看,无论是大学只怕职场,女人所占比例相差,因而需求时刻去创设通往高层职位的沟渠。但是40年以来,一些国度结束学业生人数中女子形成主流,那项论证越来越站不住脚。据澳大汉密尔顿国立高校管理学教师Claudia高尔德in称,女人崛起的终极环节–平等的薪水和最棒专门的学问大概–若不开展大幅度结构调度是不会过来。

In a recent paper in the American Economic Review Ms Goldin found that
the difference between the hourly earnings of highly qualified men and
their female peers grows hugely in the first 10-15 years of working
life, largely because of a big**premium**in some highly paid jobs on
putting in long days and being constantly on call. On the whole men find
it easier than women to work in this way. Where such jobs are common,
for example in business and the law, the gender pay gap remains wide and
even**short spells**out of the workforce are severely penalised,
meaning that**motherhood**can**exact**a heavy price. Where pay
is roughly proportional to hours worked, as in pharmacy, it is low.

在AEWrangler的风尚文献中,高尔德in女士开采高水平劳动力中,在做事生活的10到15年间,男子小时薪俸与女人差别庞大,主因在于高收入专门的学问的小幅奖金决计于长日子专门的工作和随即应对电话为前提。全部来讲,男性相对于女子更加长于如此行事。在此种工作办法广泛的天地,如商业和法则,性别薪水差距还是一点都不小。并且,以至长时间离开职业情状也或然产生严重惩罚,意味着阿娘必要提交一点都不小代价。而当专门的学业薪俸重要依附工作时间长度时,就像配药房,性别薪水差距十分小。

There will always be jobs where flexibility is not an option, says Ms
Goldin: those of CEOs, trial lawyers, surgeons, some bankers and senior
politicians come to mind. In many others, pay does not need to depend on
being**available all hours**—and well-educated men who want a life
outside work would benefit from change, too. But the new gender gap is
at the other end of the pay spectrum. And it is not women who are
suffering, but unskilled men.

Goldin女士称:有些职业是难以实现灵活性的,宛如这个主任s、法院开庭审判律师、皮肤科医师、银行家和意气风发部分家谕户晓政客们。而别的别的干活,薪给并非在于随即等待命令。同时,受过杰出教育且想要脱离专门的职业的男人也会从当中受益。不过,新的性别差距位于薪给范围的另风姿洒脱端。受苦的不要女人,而是无技能的男子。

Personally, I think that there are advantages to both systems. I went to
a mixed school, but feel that myself missed the opportunity to
specialise in cookery because it was seen as the natural domain and
career path for girl. So because of that, I would have preferred to go
to a boys’ school. But hopefully times have changed, and both genders of
student can have equal chances to study what they want to in whichever
type of school they attend.

  to cluster(人)聚集

Some people think that it is better to educate boys and girls in
separate schools. Others, however, believe that boys and girls benefit
more from attending mixed schools. Discuss both these views and give
your own opinion.

  to influence影响

Some educationalists think that it is more effective to educate boys and
girls in single-sex schools because they believe this environment can
reduce distractions and encourage pupils concentrate on their studies.
This is probably true to some extent. It also allow more equality among
pupils and gives more opportunity to all those at the school to choose
subject more freely without gender prejudice. For example, a much higher
proportion of girls study science to a high level when they attend
girls’ schools than their counterpart in mixed schools do. Similarly,
boys in single-sex schools are more likely to take cookery classes and
to study languages, which are often thought of as traditional subjects
for girls.

新浦京娱乐场官网 1图表源于:BBC

On the other hand, some experts would argue that mixed schools prepare
their pupils for their future lives. Girls and boys learn to live
together from an early age and are consequently not emotionally
underdeveloped in their relations with the opposite sex. They are also
able to learn each other, and to experience different types of skill and
talent than might be evident in a single gender environment.

  Girls outperform boys in school exams

Some countries have single-sex education models, while in others both
single sex and mixed schools co-exist and it is up to the parents or the
children to decide which model is preferable.

  gang mentality黑社会心态

  laddish幼稚的,孩子气的

  Vocabulary: education: 词汇:教育

  to pacify使安静、平定